CONTEXTS PROJECT of sea-level rise influence specific group in shanghai.

This is a writing class project. My topic is how sea-level influence specific groups in shanghai. For example, a specific group can be residents who live in a district that more vulnerable or the sea-level rise will have more impacts on them. Such as district that has low income. I will provide you an unannotated bibliography that includes 3 primary sources and 4 scholarly second resources. You can find more resources if they are not enough to support the thesis. Two scholarly resources are attached to the files. Please read the prompt carefully. Thank you! I will also provide a CP project sample for you. Focus on climate injustice.

The following information is prompt.

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WORD COUNT: at least 1250 words, not including multimodal elements and Works Cited page (final draft should be 1500-2000 words)

PREREQUISITES for the CP Working Draft: Complete Problem Definition Exercise and Unannotated and Annotated Bibliographies.

CP PROMPT (condensed): (1) research and deploy various types of sources to describe, contextualize, and analyze a significant contemporary political/social/cultural problem; (2) summarize and evaluate conversations and debates happening between credible scholars, thinkers, and organizations about your topic. [Full text of the CP prompt review the document]

YOUR PURPOSE IN THE CP: The task of the CP is not to take up and argue one side in a debate but to analyze (break down) and contextualize (explain circumstances, factors, conditions) a problem and to synthesize (compare/contrast and map out) scholarly conversation about it. The CP asks you to recognize how the problem is not simply a collection of objective “facts”; it is represented and mediated to you through the particular perspectives of experts and further, it is an object of debate among those experts. Understanding the scholarly conversation will set you up to join that conversation, especially in the AP, where you will critique already attempted solutions and argue for the best solution right now.

REQUIRED RESEARCH AND REFERENCES: At least 2 credible primary sources; at least 4 scholarly secondary sources (optional: more credible primary sources, credible non-scholarly secondary sources, more scholarly secondary sources)

SOURCE CITATION: Integrate sources by giving the full name and source credentials the first time you cite the source and using signal phrases to set up quotations or paraphrases; use the source’s last name in subsequent in-text citations; use MLA in-text citation format (see MLA Quick GuidePreview the document). Avoid over-quoting, “quilt-quoting” (stitching many quotations together without commentary), and leaving quotations or paraphrases to speak for themselves. Avoid plagiarism.

MULTI-MODAL REQUIREMENT: Incorporate at least TWO photographs, charts, graphs, maps, audio or video clips, or other audio-visual evidence into your essay, to add a dimension to your analysis that words alone could not achieve. Multi-modal elements should be labelled, captioned, cited, and incorporated into the essay’s discussion (see AGWR on multimodality).


Introduction: Framing and Analytical Thesis (1-2 paragraphs)

Begin with a vivid, real example (event or circumstance) or realistic scenario illustrating the problem as it exists today; or with startling statistics about the problem today; or with a vivid example of past circumstances very different from today’s (paraphrase and cite primary sources you have researched)

Provide basic background information that answers basic “who, what, where, and when” questions about the problem

Use your researched source(s) to frame your problem in terms of environmental justice or another kind of ethical urgency: why should we see the current situation as urgently problematic and in need of resolution?

Offer an analytical thesis that identifies major dimensions of the problem (harm to particular, identified human groups and/or non-human forms of life or ecosystems: physical harm, emotional/psychological harm, economic harm or injustice, inefficiency or waste, social/political harm or injustice) and presents the most significant context for understanding the problem; can be several sentences or a paragraph (see sample thesis below)

Essay Body: Problem, Contexts, Scholarly Conversation (4-6 paragraphs)


Offer body paragraphs that assert and explain crucial impacts of the problem identified in the thesis, referencing credible primary and secondary sources, and paying special attention to disproportionate social impacts (climate injustice), as relevant

Use a claim/evidence/warrants structure in body paragraphs: claims (asserted by you, based on your understanding of the research) about particular impacts of the problem and why they are important; evidence in the form of references to researched primary and secondary sources (appropriately cited in MLA in-text format); warrants that explain the meaning of the evidence, why it is significant, and why the reader should care about the problem

Answer questions like these: What is the scope (extent) of the problem, in the localized area you are concentrating on? What is the intensity (degree of harm or suffering) of the problem? What is the complexity of the problem (different types of harm; you may need to limit how many impacts you discuss here)? What is the urgency of the problem (consequences in the near future if there is no action)? [NB: you don’t have to answer all of these questions]

Define or identify important concepts, groups, and government agencies involved in the problem as you go

Use mostly paraphrases of sources, with occasional, well-selected, memorable direct quotations; avoid over-quoting and quilt-quoting (see AGWR, chapter 3 on source integration and citation practices).


Offer body paragraphs that assert and explain the most important local or regional contexts that help explain why the problem emerged and/or why it persists, such as the following: laws and policies (successes and failures), institutional practices (government agencies, corporations, research institutions), political actions (elections, protests, lobbying), financial/economic motives and pressures (business, labor), social/cultural norms and pressures (race, class, gender), ideological factors (beliefs, attitudes, ideals, values), technological and industrial innovations and changes, scientific research, ecological and environmental factors, psychological factors [NB: you do not have to and should not try to cover all of these]

In your discussion of contexts, consider discussing local/regional sources of greenhouse gas emissions and/or obstacles to reduction of emissions locally/regionally and/or obstacles to mitigation of or adaptation to climate change impacts locally/regionally

Do not attempt to address global greenhouse emissions or international efforts to curb emissions

Consider and discuss the roles of various human agents and stakeholders involved, such as the following: government officials and agencies, activist and advocacy groups, researchers and scientists, consumers, voters, workers, business owners, investors

If and when you discuss historical context, define a clear and reasonable starting point for your historical analysis (30-75 years ago); do not try to go back to the beginning of history or even 100 years

Use a claim/evidence/warrants structure in body paragraphs: claims (asserted by you, based on your understanding of the research) about particular crucial contextual factors and why they are important; evidence in the form of references to researched primary and secondary sources (appropriately cited in MLA in-text format); warrants explaining the meaning of the evidence and why it supports your claim about important factors driving the problem

Use mostly paraphrases of sources, with occasional, well-selected, memorable direct quotations; avoid-over-quoting and quilt-quoting



Rather than explain the scholarly conversation in a separate section of your paper, compare/contrast (synthesize) scholarly perspectives as you perform problem and contextual analysis; you might draft your problem and contextual analysis before you attempt this synthesis of scholarly perspectives

Rather than discussing each scholarly source in isolation, put them into an argumentative constellation or landscape, synthesizing their perspectives, as you use them to do problem and contextual analysis.

Compare and contrast their major claims, sources of evidence, disciplinary perspectives (e.g., law, biology, business), as well as limitations and sources of unreliability in their arguments (use material from your annotated bibliography here, but do not cut and paste).

You may choose to compare/contrast scholars who directly cite and respond to one another; however, even if they do not cite each other directly, they are still in indirect conversation with each other about the problem; you can still analyze their relative positions within a debate

Consider questions like these: Who are the prominent experts on your problem (which names come up repeatedly in your research)? What are they concerned with, and what are they arguing about? Where are the clusters of agreement? Where are the gaps of disagreement? Are there basic facts, conditions, or ideas they all accept? Do they agree or disagree on the definition of the problem? Do they agree or disagree on sources of value (what is good or bad)? Do they agree or disagree on the impacts or consequences of the problem? Do they agree or disagree on the causes of the problem? How do the disciplines in which they work (e.g., law, biology, business) allow them to see certain things and miss others? How do the various experts exhibit certain assumptions, biases, omissions, or logical errors? [NB: You do not have to answer all of these.]

Organize your body paragraphs according to topic, making comparisons and contrasts among authors within them; do not proceed author by author; avoid including parts of their arguments that do not matter to your problem and contextual analysis; avoid simply summarizing each author’s argument in isolation from the others

Use mostly paraphrases of sources, with occasional, well-selected, memorable direct quotations; avoid over-quoting and quilt-quoting


Conclusion (1 paragraph)

Sum up your analysis of the problem and its most important contexts, without cutting and pasting from your thesis or other parts of the paper

Discuss the stakes of the problem (bad consequences in the near or distant future if no action is taken and/or potential benefits if a solution is implemented)

Identify major obstacles or difficulties in the way of a solution

Point towards a solution that best fits the problem analysis you have done

Optional: Provide ethical framing for the problem here (rather than in your intro)


Annotated MLA-formatted Works Cited page (see MLA Quick GuidePreview the document)


Document all cited sources in MLA 8th-edition format; include 6 annotations previously submitted; other cited works can be unannotated; Works Cited page does not count towards essay word count




Audience and tone: Presume you are addressing an academic audience (including your peers and professors) who are not necessarily experts in the particular fields you will be discussing but who expect evidence-based argument and examination of fundamental assumptions behind the argument. Avoid personal pronouns (I, we, you), imperative voice (“imagine this …”), cliché, slang, and casual tone.







Current grazing practices on federal land in the western US contribute to infertility and desertification of the land, undermining the practices themselves in the future, and also contribute to the worldwide problem of global warming; the US government and taxpayers effectively subsidize the industry by charging minimal fees which, if raised to parity with fees for private land use, could be used for land conservation. Weak government attempts at grazing management, like the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934, allowed the problem to persist and grow. Significant academic research from the 1930’s through the 2000’s has influenced more effective conservation legislation like the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. Nonetheless, American cultural beliefs about economic independence and access to natural resources have continued to fuel the problem through rancher protest actions from the 1980’s to today.

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